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那不勒斯,一座披萨“圣城”

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2017年12月21日

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NAPLES, Italy — Above the throng shoving its way along Via dei Tribunali, this pizza-crazed city’s historic pizza thoroughfare, Antonio Borrelli leaned over the fake lemons hanging from the “Balcony of Song” above Antica Pizzeria Gino Sorbillo and dared sing something else.

意大利那不勒斯——在为披萨而疯狂的那不勒斯城历史悠久、人潮涌动的披萨大道(Via dei Tribunali)上方,安东尼奥·博雷利(Antonio Borrelli)俯身冲着从吉诺·索比罗老牌披萨店(Antica Pizzeria Gino Sorbillo)楼上的“音乐露台”(Balcony of Song)悬挂的假柠檬,竟然唱了一首跟披萨无关的歌。

“The pizza!” the crowd screamed in protest.

“披萨!”人群发出了抗议的呼喊声。

“The pizza. OK, OK, OK. Give me a second,” Borrelli, a local crooning attraction, said Friday as he switched the track on his sound machine, gripped the microphone and, with an intro of “Everybody, here we go again,” sang: “But you wanted the pizza. The pizza. The pizza. With the tomato sauce on top. With the tomato sauce on top.”

“披萨。好,好,好。给我点时间,”这是一个周五,当地的抒情歌星博雷利一边说着,一边给音响换了一曲,拿起麦克风,在说了一句开场白“各位,我们重新开始”之后,他唱道:“但你们想要披萨。披萨,披萨?;挂渥欧呀?,还要配着番茄酱。”

The delighted crowd sang along with Borelli in Neapolitan dialect, and then lost its collective marbles when he pointed out that the celebrity pizza maker Gino Sorbillo had stepped out of the restaurant and onto the street.

兴高采烈的人群和博雷利一起用那不勒斯的方言唱了起来。当博雷利告诉他们明星披萨师傅吉诺·索比罗(Gino Sorbillo)已经从餐厅出来、走到了街上时,人们统统都丧失了理智。

Naples was in the throes of a citywide pizza party.

那不勒斯全城正在举行披萨派对。

News had come from far away, on the South Korean island of Jeju, that UNESCO’s Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage put the roughly 3,000 pizza makers, or pizzaiuoli, of Naples on its Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. (“The art of Neapolitan pizzaiuoli is Intangible Heritage of Humanity!” tweeted the Italian culture minister, Dario Franceschini.)

从遥远的韩国济州岛传来消息称,联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)?;し俏镏饰幕挪被?Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage)已将那不勒斯城中的大约3000名披萨师傅——也就是pizzaiuoli——列入了人类非物质文化遗产代表名录(Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity)。(“那不勒斯披萨师傅的手艺是人类非物质遗产!”意大利文化部长达里奥·弗兰切斯基尼[Dario Franceschini]在Twitter发贴说。)

There were 32 other intangible winners of the tangible list, including Chogan, an Iranian horse-riding game accompanied by music and storytelling, and Uilleann piping from Ireland, but the pizzaiuoli of Naples proved as skilled in the art of self-promotion as in baking pies.

另外还有其他32项非物质文化遗产也入选了该名录,包括Chogan——伊朗一项伴着音乐和故事骑马的比赛——以及爱尔兰的Uilleann风笛,但那不勒斯的披萨师傅证明了,他们自我宣传的手段和制作披萨的手段一样高超。

“Finally, the world recognizes the capability of the pizza maker,” Sorbillo, 43, said. “We make a product that has conquered the world.”

“世界终于承认了披萨师傅的能力,”43岁的索比罗说。“我们做出了一个征服世界的产品。”

Immaculately groomed and bespectacled, Sorbillo walked into the kitchen, past a cardboard cutout of himself holding his new book, “Pizzaman.” He took a ball of dough from atop a stack of pink, green, blue and red boxes, tossed some flour on the marble countertop and smacked the dough down hard.

在捯饬完毕、戴好眼镜后,索比罗经过一个自己的人形立牌走进了厨房,人形立牌里的他拿着自己的新书《披萨匠》(Pizzaman)。他从一堆粉色、绿色、蓝色、红的的盒子上方拿出了一块面团,往大理石的工作台上撒了一些面粉,然后使劲地把面团摔了下去。

“This is called the slap method,” he said.

“这叫摔打法,”他说。

Next he spread the sauce, sprinkled the cheese, drizzled the oil and pulled the edges of what would become the raised cornicione crust taut over a wooden peel, before sliding it into the wood-burning oven.

接着,他抹好酱汁、撒上奶酪、洒上油,抓住之后会鼓起成为披萨边的地方把它拖到长柄木铲上,然后将披萨送进烧木柴的炉子里。

“It’s an art,” Sorbillo said. “It started in Naples and survived the centuries, despite all the difficulties, the earthquakes, Vesuvius, the war, the wars.”

“这是门艺术,”索比罗说道。“它起源于那不勒斯,尽管经历了那么多苦难、地震、维苏威火山爆发、大战、世界大战,几个世纪以来它都得以存留。”

Sorbillo traces the road to recognition back 300 years ago, but appreciation from UNESCO began more recently, when, in 2009, Pier Luigi Petrillo, an Italian professor and expert in “lobbying theories and techniques” made three applications to UNESCO on behalf of Italy’s Agriculture Ministry.

索比罗把寻求认可的道路追溯回了300年以前,但联合国教科文组织最近一些年才开始对此有所认识。2009年,意大利教授、“游说理论和技巧”专家皮耶尔·路易吉·彼得里洛(Pier Luigi Petrillo)代表意大利农业部向联合国教科文组织递交了三项申请。

The first to win was the Mediterranean diet, in 2010, (“It has given rise to a considerable body of knowledge, songs, maxims, tales and legends”), followed in 2014 by the practice of cultivating Zibibbo wine on the Sicilian island of Pantelleria. (“The technique consists of several phases.”) That same year, Petrillo started collecting what ended up being 2 million signatures for the pizzaiuolo cause.

2010年时,地中海饮食首先入选(“它极大地扩展了知识、歌谣、格言、故事和传说体系”);随后在2014年,西西里潘泰莱里亚岛(Pantelleria)酿酒的泽比波(Zibibbo)葡萄的种植技术入选(“这项技艺由数个步骤组成”);同年,彼得里洛开始为披萨申遗收集签名,最后收集到了200万个。

He traveled around the world to promote the pizza makers’ candidacy, personally lobbying representatives from crucial voting countries, laying it on thick with children’s drawings of their fathers baking pizza and explaining, per the UNESCO application, that the pizzaiuolo “makes the dough spinning and twirling it between both hands and then raises it to the air with a quick movement, often singing traditional songs.”

他周游世界,宣传披萨制作者的候选资格,亲自游说关键投票国的代表,用孩子们画的父亲烤披萨的图画大做文章,按照联合国教科文组织的申请要求,解释披萨制作者“用双手旋转、缠绕面团,然后把它快速抛到空中,同时还常常唱着传统歌曲”。

He competed against “female traditional interior wall decoration in Asir, Saudi Arabia,” “Cultural practices associated to the 1st of March” in Bulgaria, and “Taskiwin, martial dance of the western High Atlas” in Morocco. But the pizza lobbying paid off.

他的竞争对手包括“沙特阿拉伯阿西尔省的女性传统内墙装饰”、保加利亚“三月节(3月1日)的文化习俗”,以及摩洛哥“大阿特拉斯山的武术舞蹈”。不过,披萨游说获得了回报。

At about 5 a.m. last Thursday, Sorbillo woke up Ciro Oliva, the master pizzaiuolo who runs Concettina ai Tre Santi, shouting “Ciro, we won!”

上周四凌晨5点左右,索比罗叫醒经营Concettina ai Tre Santi披萨店的披萨制作大师奇罗·奥利瓦(Ciro Oliva),喊道:“奇罗,我们赢了!”

Oliva, 24, said he started yelling with joy as well. “That day will be remembered in pizza history.”

24岁的奥利瓦说他自己也跟着高兴地大喊大叫。“那一天将被铭记在披萨的历史上。”

Oliva’s great-grandmother started making pizzas in the same building of the tough Sanità section of the city where he works his magic today, with little more than an oven and a window to hand the bread out on the street.

奥利瓦的曾祖母曾在这栋位于治安不佳的萨尼塔区的建筑里开始做披萨。如今,他也在这里施展魔法,借助的不过是一个烤箱和一个把面包递到街上的窗口。

Oliva, gregarious and ebullient, has sought to take pizza to the next level. As adept a marketer as Sorbillo, he seized on the UNESCO publicity to show off a tasting menu of haute-cuisine dishes including pork jowl pizza puffs, artichoke sandwiches, fried amberjack calzones and marinara slices that showcased the purity of his products and the sophistication of his skill.

热情开朗的奥利瓦一直在努力把披萨提升到更高的水平。他和索比罗一样善于推销,利用联合国教科文组织的宣传,推出了一份高级烹饪菜肴的品尝菜单,包括猪颈肉披萨泡芙、洋蓟三明治、半圆形炸鲹鱼披萨和番茄大蒜调味汁切片,展示了其产品的纯粹和技艺的精湛。

It is a profession, Oliva said, that has allowed him to give back to the community, offering free pizzas and paying for English lessons for local children. He has a loyal following of foodies, and across a courtyard strewn with laundry, a high-tech storage room for his adored dough to rest and mature.

奥利瓦表示,这份职业让他能够回馈社区,免费提供披萨,出钱让当地的孩子学英语。他有一群忠实的美食追随者。穿过一个晾满衣服的院子,有一个高科技储藏室,他心爱的面团在那里休息、发酵。

But when he started, as a pizza delivery boy for his parents, driving a scooter with one hand and balancing the pizzas on his forearm with the other, he said no one respected the pizzaiuolo’s craft.

不过,他最初帮父母送披萨时,一只手驾驶着小摩托车,另一只手保持着前臂上披萨的平衡,他说那时候没人尊重披萨手艺。

“When I was little, they made fun of me,” he said, referring to classmates who greeted him at school with the chorus of a popular Italian song that went, “Go make a pizza.”

“我小时候,他们经常取笑我,”他说。他指的是在学校里,同学们跟他打招呼时,总是一起唱起一首意大利流行歌曲,里面有句歌词是:“去做披萨吧”。

He worried that his daughter, despite now being able to attend an exclusive private school with the children of judges and magistrates, had faced similar slights. But with UNESCO recognizing her father as a leading purveyor of an intangible heritage of humanity, he hopes they will show her more respect.

尽管现在,他的女儿能与法官和地方行政官的孩子们一起上私立学校,但他担心女儿也面临着同样的问题。不过现在,联合国教科文组织承认她的父亲是人类非物质遗产的主要传承者,他希望他们能更尊重她。

“Now,” he said. “We’ll see.”

“现在,”他说,“让我们拭目以待。”
 


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