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2017年职称英语综合A类阅读理解练习题(3)

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2017年03月10日

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  第一篇

  Common-cold Sense

  You can't beat it, but you don't have to join it. Maybe it got the name "common cold" because it's more common in winter. The fact is, though, being cold doesn't have anything to do with getting one. Colds are caused by the spread of rhinoviruses, and, at least so far, medical science is better at telling you how to avoid getting one than how to get rid of one.

  Children are the most common way cold viruses are spread to adults, because they have more colds than adults--an average of about eight per year. Why do kids seem so much more easily to get colds than their parents? Simple. They haven't had the opportunity to become immune to many cold viruses.

  There are more than 150 different cold viruses, and you never have the same one twice. Being infected by one makes you immune to it--but only it.

  Colds are usually spread by direct contact, not sneezing or coughing. From another person's hand to your hand and then to your nose or eyes is the most common route. The highest concentration of cold viruses anywhere is found under the thumbnails of a boy, although the viruses can survive for hours on skin or other smooth surfaces.

  Hygiene is your best defense. Wash your hands frequently, preferably with a disinfectant soap,especially when children in your household have colds.

  But even careful hygiene won't ward off every cold. So, what works when a coughing, sneezing, runny nose strikes?

  The old prescription of two aspirins, lots of water, and bed rest is a good place to start. But you'll also find some of the folk remedies worth trying. Hot mixtures of sugar (or honey), lemon,and water have real benefits.

  31. According to the essay, you may have a cold because________.

  A. the weather is too cold.  B. the spread of rhinoviruses gets people infected.

  C. another person's coughing passes the cold to you.  D. you wash your hands too often.

  32. The best way to keep yourself from getting colds is________.

  A. to keep yourself clean.  B. to use a disinfectant soap.

  C. to take two aspirin pills every day.  D. to drink lots of water.

  33. Children have more colds because________.

  A. they are usually infected about eight times each year.

  B. they are not immune to many cold viruses.

  C. they never wash their hands so that their thumbnails are dirty.

  D. they don't like eating lemon.

  34. When you are having a cold, ________.

  A. it is always the same kind of cold that you had last time.

  B. it may be the same kind of cold that you had last time.

  C. it is certainly not the same kind of cold that you had last time.

  D. it is probably not the same kind of cold that you had last time.

  35. When one is having a cold, he often has some symptoms EXCEPT________.

  A. coughing.  B. having a sore throat.

  C. having a runny nose.  D. having a stomachache.

  第二篇

  Cigars Instead?

  Smoking one or two cigars a day doubles the risk of cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth, and throat, according to a government study.

  Daily cigars also increase the risk of lung cancer and cancer of the esophagus, and increase the risk of cancer of the larynx (voice-box) six-fold, say researchers at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland.

  In addition, the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer to 8.5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal cancer by four times the risk of nonsmokers.

  The health effects of smoking cigars is one of eight sections of the article "Cigars: Health Effects and Trends." The researchers report that, compared with a cigarette, a large cigar emits up to 90 times as much carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

  "This article provides clear and invaluable information about the disturbing increase in cigar use and the significant public health consequences for the country," said Dr. Richard Klausner, director of the National Cancer Institute, in a statement.

  "The data are clear -- the harmful substances and carcinogens in cigar smoke, like cigarettes, are associated with the increased risks of several kinds of cancers as well as heart and lung diseases," he added. "In other words, cigars are not safe alternatives to cigarettes and may be addictive."

  "To those individuals who may be thinking about smoking cigars, our advice is--don't. To those currently smoking cigars, quitting is the only way to eliminate completely the cancer, heart and lung disease risks," warned Klausner.

  According to National Cancer Institute press release, there haven't been any studies on the health effects on nonsmokers at cigar social events, but "... a significant body of evidence clearly demonstrates and increased lung cancer risk from secondhand smoke."

  36. According to the report, smoking three or four cigars a day

  A. increases the risk of oral cancer for non-smokers.

  B. greatly increases the risk of oral cancer for smokers.

  C. increases the risk of more than one cancer for non-smokers.

  D. greatly increases the risk of more than one cancer for smokers.

  37. In the passage how many cancers are mentioned in relation to smoking cigars daily?

  A. Six.  B. Seven.  C. Eight.  D. Nine.

  38. What is the main idea of the article "Cigars: Health Effects and Trends"?

  A. When it comes to cancer, cigars are not any safer than cigarettes.

  B. Cigars may be addictive while cigarettes are not easily so.

  C. Cigars contain less harmful substances than cigarettes.

  D. Increase in cigar-smoking does not affect public health much.

  39. What is the doctors' advice to those cigar-smokers?

  A. To give it up completely.  B. To give up part of it.

  C. Not to think about it any more.  D. To cure the diseases first.

  40. In the context of this passage, "secondhand smoke" may mean

  A. smoking bad-quality cigars.  B. smoking very cheap cigars.

  C. being near cigar smokers when they are not smoking.

  D. being near cigar smokers when they are smoking.

  第三篇

  Batteries Built by Viruses

  What do chicken pox, the common cold, the flu, and AIDS have in common? They're all disease caused by viruses, tiny microorganisms that can pass from person to person. It's no wonder that when most people think about viruses, finding ways to steer clear of viruses is what's on people's minds.

  Not everyone runs from the tiny disease carriers, though. In Cambridge, Massachusetts,scientists have discovered that some viruses can be helpful in an unusual way. They are putting viruses to work, teaching them to build some of the world's smallest rechargeable batteries.

  Viruses and batteries may seem like an unusual pair, but they're not so strange for engineer Angela Belcher, who first came up with5 the idea. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, she and her collaborators bring together different areas of science in new ways. In the case of the virus-built batteries, the scientists combine what they know about biology, technology and production techniques.

  Belcher's team includes Paula Hammond, who helps put together the tiny batteries, and Yet-Ming Chiang, an expert on how to store energy in the form of a battery. "We're working on things we traditionally don't associate with nature," says Hammond.

  Many batteries are already pretty small. You can hold A, C and D batteries6 in your hand. The coin-like batteries that power watches are often smaller than a penny. However, every year, new electronic devices like personal music players or cell phones get smaller than the year before. As these devices shrink, ordinary bakeries won't be small enough to fit inside.

  The ideal battery will store a lot of energy in a small package. Right now, Belcher's model battery, a metallic disk completely built by viruses, looks like a regular watch battery. But inside, its components are very small-so tiny you can only see them with a powerful microscope.

  How small are these battery parts? To get some idea of the size, pluck one hair from your head.

  Place your hair on a piece of white paper and try to see how wide your hair is-pretty thin, right?

  Although the width of each person's hair is a bit different, you could probably fit about 10 of these virus-built battery parts, side to side, across one hair. These microbatteries may change the way we look at viruses?.

  41. According to the first paragraph people try to

  A. kill microorganisms related to chicken pox, the flu, etc.

  B. keep themselves away from viruses because they are invisible.

  C. stay away from viruses because they are causes of various diseases.

  D. cure themselves of virus-related diseases by taking medicines.

  42. What is Belcher's team doing at present?

  A. It is finding ways to get rid of viruses.  B. It is mass-producing microbatteries.

  C. It is making batteries with viruses.  D. It is analyzing virus genes.

  43. What expression below is opposite in meaning to the word "shrink" appearing in paragraph 5 ?

  A. Broaden.  B. Spread.  C. Extend.  D. Expand.

  44. Which of the following is true of Belcher's battery mentioned in paragraph 6 ?

  A. It is made of metal.  B. It is a kind of watch battery.

  C. It can only be seen with a microscope.

  D. It is a metallic disk with viruses inside it.

  45. How tiny is one battery part?

  A. Its width is one tenth of a hair.  B. It equals the width of a hair.

  C. It is as thin as a piece of paper.  D. Its width is too tiny to measure.

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