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2017年职称英语理工类阅读理解练习题(1)

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2017年05月17日

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Irradiating Food

Irradiating fruits, vegetables, pork and chicken to kill insects and bacteria has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration over the past decade or so. Irradiation of other meats, such as beef and lamb, is being reviewed. Federal approval does not require that industry adopt the process, and few food processors presently offer irradiated products.

Market studies have shown that many consumers are afraid that eating irradiated foods may cause cancer, despite scientific studies that prove the safety of treated foods. Some people argue that more severe government inspection, higher food-safety standards, and more careful-preparation practices by consumers are all that is needed to ensure that food is safe. Consequently, companies currently see no need to spend millions of dollars outfitting processing plants with the equipment necessary for a process that very few shoppers are in favor of.

All supermarkets that sell irradiated food must label the food either directly on the packaging, or, in the case of bulk items like fruits and vegetables, by placing a sign nearby. There is no requirement for the labeling of irradiated food served by chain restaurants or hospitals that buy directly from distributors, nor any regulations for products that contain irradiated ingredients.

Presently, the FDA allows food to be treated with three types of radiation -- gamma rays, high-energy electrons, and X rays -- and sets limits on doses, depending on the type of food. The principle is that the dose to be used for a certain type of food should not exceed the amount that is sufficient to kill most harmful insects and bacteria present in it. Different types of food, because of their molecular compositions, may require different doses of radiation.

1. According to the passage, killing insects and bacteria present in foods by irradiating is not completely approved by the US government.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

2. There are quite a number of food processors which are interested in producing irritated foods.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

3. Some consumers are doubtful of the safety of irradiated foods and suggest a more severe government inspection be taken.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

4. Some companies foresee the promising future of setting up food processing factories, although they do not see the need now.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

5. It is required that labels placed on irradiated food or nearby bulk items such as vegetables and fruits should indicate irradiated ingredients.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

6. Restaurants can serve irradiated food bought directly from distributors without labeling it.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

7. The passage tells us that FDA approves irradiating food to some extent but irradiated food is not widely accepted.

A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

参考答案:

1. B.分析:利用句子中的特征词Columbia University researchers 和a few months in advance作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:While some forecasting methods had limited SUCCESS predicting the 1997 E1 Nino a few months in advance,the Columbia University researchers say their method can predict large E1 Nino events up to two years in advance.(问题句说“提前几个月”,而原文说“最远能提前到两年”,因此可见问题句的内容中有与原文不一致的地方,因此判断该句“不正确”。)

2.A.分析:利用句子中出现的核心结构EI Nino occurrences 和 sea—surface temperatures作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:Using a computer the researchers matched sea-surface temperatures to later El Nino occurrences between 1980 and 2000 (该划线结构的含义基本上与问题句的内容一致,还需要对信息1进行判断--辨别the researchers是否就是“The Columbia University researchers”,而前文中出现的就是“The Columbia University researchers”,因此判断信息1和信息2的内容都在原文中有呼应的内容,因此判断该句的说法正确。)

3.C.分析:该题涉及到的内容和前面出现的问题有关,注意到题干中出现的特征词(the first),因此判断对该词的确认是关键。利用该词作为答案线索,这样发现文章中没有这个词出现。因为该句是概括总结句,因此再利用句子出现的核心结构sea-surface temperatures 和the past EI Nino occurrences作为答案线索,发现涉及这两个结构的句子所表达的句意都与问题句的内容无关,因此判断问题句的说法“没提到”。

4. C. 分析:利用句子中出现的特征词Weare作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:but Bryan C.Weare, a meteorologist at the University of California, Davis,who was not involved in the work,said it“suggests‘E1 Nino is indeed predictable.”

“This will probably convince others to search around more for even better methods.”said Weare.He added that the new method“makes it possible to predict El Nino at 1ong lead times.” Other models also use sea-surface temperatures, but they have not looked as far back because they need other data,which is only available for recent decades,Weare said.(这些涉及到Weare的句子在内容上都没有讲述是否Weare在预测厄尔尼诺现象方面作出了贡献,也没有提到他的贡献是否得到了其他气象学家的高度赞扬)

5.B.分析:利用句子中出现的特征词Chinese report, in 1 99 1 and 1 997和200 million Chinese people作为答案线索,这样发现答案相关句:When El Nino hit in 199 1 and 1997, 200 million people were affected by flooding in China alone, according to a 2002 United Nations report.(该句的内容与问题句的内容不一致。)

6. A. 分析:该问题句内容和结构都较简单,句子中出现了一个数字(8个月),因此猜测对于这个数字的辨别是解题的关键。借助eight months 和句子中的核心词peak作为答案线索,这样找到答案相关句: E1 Nino tends to develop between April and June and reaches its peak between December and February(借助该句含义可以推出“El Nino需要大约8个月达到峰值”)

7. C.分析:利用句子中出现的核心词A special institute 和 America作为答案线索,这样发现文章中根本就没有提到“在美国建立一所特别的研究院”,因此该句为“没提到”。


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