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2017年职称英语理工类阅读理解练习题(2)

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2017年05月18日

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The Gene Industry

Major companies are already in pursuit of commercial applications of the new biology. They dream of placing enzymes in the automobile to monitor exhaust and send data on pollution to a microprocessor that will then adjust the engine. They speak of what the New York Times calls " metal-hungry microbes that might be used to mine valuable trace metals from ocean water ". They have already demanded and won the right to patent new lifeforms.

Nervous critics, including many scientists, worry that there is corporate, national, international, and inter-scientific rivalry in the entire biotechnological field. They create images not of oil spills, but of " microbe spills " that could spread disease and destroy entire populations. The creation and accidental release of extremely poisonous microbes, however, is only one cause for alarm. Completely rational and respectable scientists are talking about possibilities that stagger the imagination.

Should we breed people with cow-like stomachs so they can digest grass and hay, thereby relieving the food problem by modifying us to eat lower down on the food chain? Should we biologically alter workers to fit the job requirement, for example, creating pilots with faster reaction times or assembly-line workers designed to do our monotonous work for us? Should we attempt to eliminate " inferior " people and breed a " super -race "? (Hitler tried this, but without the genetic weaponry that may soon issue from our laboratories.) Should we produce soldiers to do our fighting? Should we use genetic forecasting to pre-eliminate " unfit " babies? Should we grow reserve organs for ourselves, each of us having, as it were, a " savings bank " full of spare kidney, livers or hands?

Wild as these notions may sound, every one has its advocates (and opposers) in the scientific community as well as its striking commercial application. As two critics of genetic engineering, Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard, state in their book Who Should Play God? " Broad Scale genetic engineering will probably be introduced to America much the same way as assembly lines, automobiles, vaccines, computers and all the other technologies. As each new genetic advance becomes commercially practical, a new consumer need will be exploited and a market for the new technology will be created."

1. According to the passage, the exhaust from a car engine could probably be checked by

A) using metal-hungry microbes .

B) making use of enzymes.

C) adjusting the engine.

D) patenting new life forms.

2. According to the passage, which of the following would worry the critics the most?

A) The unanticipated explosion of population

B) The creation of biological solar cells.

C) The accidental spill of oil.

D) The unexpected release of destructive microbes.

3. Which of the following notions is NOT mentioned?

A) Developing a " savings bank " of one's organs.

B) Breeding soldiers for a war.

C) Producing people with cow-like stomachs.

D) Using genetic forecasting to cure diseases.

4. According to the passage, Hitler attempted to

A) changed the pilots biologically to win the war.

B) develop genetic farming for food supply.

C) kill the people he thought of as inferior.

D) encourage the development of genetic weapons for the war.

5. What dose Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard's statement imply?

A) The commercial applications of genetic engineering are inevitable.

B) American will depend on other countries for biological progress.

C) Americans are proud of their countries for biological progress.

D) The potential application of each new genetic advance should be controlled.

参考答案:

1.B 第一段虽然提到了感冒常发生于冬天,但紧接下去说得很清楚:受凉并不导致感冒,所以A不是正确答案。文章第四段第一句说得明白:感冒通常是与感冒的人身体直接接触而传染的,而不是由打喷嚏或咳嗽传染的,所以C项也不是正确答案。至于D更是错误。答案B与第一段第三句的意义相吻合,因此是正确答案。

2.A 第五段的第一句话“Hygiene is your best defense”意思是“卫生是你的最佳防御”,与A项相吻合,因此A项是正确答案。同一段中提到的用消毒肥皂洗手,虽然也是保持卫生的手段之一,但仅是一个具体措施,不是全部措施,所以B项不是正确答案。C项提到的服阿司匹林是治感冒的手段之一,而非预防手段(况且没有说到“一天服两片”!)D项提到的多喝水在文中也指治疗手段,所以c和D都不是正确答案。

3.B 第二段中提到儿童平均一年得八次感冒,这是一个统计数据而不是儿童得感冒的原因;文中并没有说“儿童从不洗手”;文中也没有说“儿童不喜欢吃柠檬”;所以A、C、D都不对。B项与第二段最后一句意思一样,是正确答案。

4.C 第三段提到有150种感冒病毒,而人们绝不会被同一种病毒侵害两次,因为得了一次感冒后对相应的病毒就获得了免疫力,所以只有C项才符合第三段的内容。

5.D 本题谈的是文中提及的感冒症状。文中并没有提到得了感冒就胃疼,实际上文中根本就没有“stomachache”这个词或相关的字眼,所以D项是正确答案。


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