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2014年职称英语卫生C真题及答案(Word版)

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  第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

  1.Take some spare clothes in case you get wet.

  A fine B winter C outdoor D extra

  2.Afterwards there was just a feeling of let-down.

  A excitement B anger C calm D disappointment

  3.The AIDS convention will be held in Glasgow.

  A conference B party C celebration D union

  4.The new service helped boost pre-tax profits by 10%.

  A return B realize C increase D double

  5.Some comments are just inviting trouble.

  A asking for B keeping out of C getting into D suffering from

  6.His knowledge of French is fair.

  A very useful B very limited C quite good D rather special

  7.The book raised a storm of controversy.

  A damage B voice C doubt D argument

  8.My principal concern is to get the job done fast.

  A serious B main C deep D particular

  9.Lack of space forbids further treatment of the topic here.

  A receives B deserves C accepts D prevents

  10.He made a number of rude remarks about the food.

  A comments B signs C manners D noises

  11.They are trying to identify what is wrong with the present systm.

  A prove B discover C consider D imagine

  12.His heart gave a sudden leap when he saw her.

  A hope B jump C silence D life

  13.The worst agonies of the war were now beginning.

  A parts B aspects C pains D results

  14.I'm sure I'll be able to amuse myself for a few hours.

  A entertain B treat C hold D keep

  15.Several windows had been smashed.

  A cleaned B broken C replaced D fixed

  答案:DDACA CDBDA BBCAB

  第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  Some Schooling on Backpacks(同理工A/B、综合B/C其中一篇阅读理解)

  According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 5.900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms, clinics, and doctors’ offices last year for sprains and strains caused by backpacks. Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.

  How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide, padded straps (有垫的肩带) and a belt. That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips. You should also tighten both straps firmly, so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist. Also, remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.

  How much should you stuff into your pack? That depends on your size and strength. but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight, so if a child weighs 100 pounds, the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds. One hint. Make frequent trips to your locker to exchange books between classes.

  Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground, but they have problems too. Marty are larger than the average shoulder bag, so students are tempted 1o carry more than they would in a conventional pack.

  Roller bags often don't fit into a locker. They can also lead to tapping and falls in crowded halls. Whatever you use, 10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea.

  16. About six thousand American kids were injured by carrying backpacks last year.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  17. 70 percent of UK physicians have treated children with sprains and strains.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  18. Backpacks with wide, padded straps and a belt can help to avoid problems of sprains and strains.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  19. A 100 pound child should carry a backpack of more than 20 pounds.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  20. Children should put all the books in their lockers.

  A. Right B Wrong C. Not mentioned

  21. Roller bags tend to be heavier than ordinary backpacks.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  22. A 10-15 minutes exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  答案:ABABCCA

  第3部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23 ~ 26题要求从所给的6个选项中为指定段落每段选择1个小标题;(2)第27 ~ 30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。

  Eye Problems

  1 Our eyes are under a great deal of strain these days as computer work, television viewing, night driving, and even sunshine are making exceptional demands. Sunlight, especially in the summer, is now regarded as one cause of cataracts (白内障).

  2 The thinning of the ozone (臭氧) layer means more short-wave ultraviolet (UV) rays (紫外线) are reaching the earth, and these are the biggest risk factor for clouding the lens of the eye. Ultraviolet rays increase the risk of changes to the cornea (角膜) causing clouded vision and eventually cataracts. The rays can be shielded only by anti-UV lenses. However, our eyes are not sufficiently protected by fashion sunglasses.

  3 "Poor night vision and eye fatigue are noticeably more common, and there has been a big increase in minor eye complaints in the over-40s," says Dr. Mireille Bonnet, who took part in recent research. She says that the six muscles controlling each eye move more than 100,000 times a day and that everyone should learn to exercise their eye muscles and allow them to rest.

  4 It was traditionally thought that near- or far-sightedness were inherited conditions and could not be influenced by environmental factors, but new research is challenging this assumption.

  6 Recent studies suggest that up to 80 percent of schoolchildren in the United States and western Europe are nearsighted. Years of focusing on close, two-dimensional work causes most children to become at least slightly nearsighted by the age of 10, say the researchers.

  6 Problems with night vision, which affect around 25 percent of people, are also on the increase because of computer use. Using computer screens means the eye ate in electromagnetic fields (Iti.111;*) that make work harder It is estimatedthamr;s5t 30 wino,' or people have eye Conditions. such as difficulty with night visiOn, which It from staring at a screen.

  23. Paragraph 2 ____B____

  24. Paragraph 3 ____A____

  25. Paragraph 5 ____D____

  26. Paragraph 6 ____E____

  A. The development of poor night vision

  B. The greatest threat to the eyes

  C. The function of sunglasses

  D. The reason for children’s nearsightedness

  E. The effects of computer on the eyes

  F. The ways to reduce eye complaints

  27. Sunlight in the summer is believed to be one cause of ___B___.

  28. We can wear anti-UV glasses to protect ___D____.

  29. We used to believe that near- or far-sightedness were inherited from ___A___.

  30. Over 25% of people are estimated to have difficulty with night vision due to ___E___.

  A. our parents

  B. clouded vision

  C. eye muscles

  D. our eyes

  E. computer use

  F. eye move

  第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

  第一篇 The Bilingual Brain(出自卫生教材补全短文第四篇)

  When Karl Kim immigrated to the United States from Korea’s a teenager, he had a hard time learning English. Now he speaks it fluently, and he had a unique opportunity to see how our brains adapt to a second language. As a graduate student, Kim worked in the lab of Joy Hirsch, a neuroscientist in New York. Their work led to an important discovery. They found evidence that children and adults don’t use the same parts of the brain when they learn a second language.

  The researchers used an instrument called an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner to study the brains of two groups of bilingual people. One group consisted of those who had learned a second language as children. The other consisted of people who, like Kim,learned their second language later in life. People from both groups were placed inside the MRI scanner. This allowed Kim and Hirsch to see which parts of the brain were getting more blood and were more active. They asked people from both groups to think about what they had done the day before, first in one language and then the other. They couldn’t speak out loud because any movement would disrupt the scanning.

  Kim and Hirsch looked specifically at two language centers in the brain - Broca's area, which is believed to control speech production, and Wernicke’s area, which is thought to process meaning. Kim and Hirsch found that both groups of people used the same part of Wernicke's area no matter what language they were speaking. But their use of Broca’s area was different.

  People who learned a second language as children used the same region in Broca’s area for both their first and second languages. People who learned a second language later in life used a different part of Broca’s area for their second language. How does Hirsch explain this difference? Hirsch believes that when language is first being programmed in young children, their brains may mix the sounds and structures of all languages in the same area. Once that programming is complete, the processing of a new language must be taken over by a different part of the brain.

  A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages differently as children than we do as adults. Hirsch thinks that mothers teach a baby to speak by using different methods involving touch, sound, and sight. And that is very different from learning a language in a high school or college class.

  31. Karl Kim’s study showed that

  A. people learn English and Korean in different way.

  B. children and adults use the different parts of the brain to lean a second language.

  C. it is not possible for an adult to speak a second language fluently.

  D. people’s brains will not change when they learn a second language.

  32. How did Kim and Hirsch study the brains of two groups of bilingual people?

  A. They interviewed them in English and Korean.

  B. They asked them to speak the same language.

  C. They used an MRI scanner to observe their brains.

  D. They asked them to talk about what they had done the day before.

  33. Which aspect of the two languages centers in the brain does Paragraph 3 discuss?

  A. Impact

  B. Function

  C. Location

  D. Size

  34. Kim and Hirsch find that children

  A. use the same region in Broca’s area to learn their first and second language.

  B. learn a second language slower than adults.

  C. are better at acquiring the sound system of a second language than adults.

  D. use special parts of the brain to program the structures of their first language.

  35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

  A. students do better in high school than in college.

  B. bilingual children will learn better in college classes.

  C. mothers are good language teachers.

  D. it takes more time for adults to learn a second language.

  答案:BCBAD

  第2篇Approaches to Understanding Intelligences(同理工A/B、综合B/C其中一篇阅读理解)

  It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way. You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader. Each of us is different.

  Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities. Psychologists have two different views on intelligence. Some believe there is one general intelligence. Others believe there are many different intelligences.

  Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests. These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests. They do well on tests using words, numbers, or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests, and written or oral tests. Those who do poorly on one test, do the same on all tests.

  Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence. The brains of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving. The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction. Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.

  Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education, has four children. He believes that all children are different and shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test. Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists, he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling. He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences. These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life. Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences. Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.

  Gardner says that his theory is based on biology. For example, when one part of the Brain is injured, other parts of the brain still work. People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing. So, there is not just one intelligence to lose. Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence: linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic (身体动觉的), and naturalistic .

  31. What is the main idea of this passage?

  A. How to understand intelligence.

  B. The importance of intelligence.

  C. The development of intelligence tests.

  D. How to become intelligent.

  32. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?

  A. Most intelligent people do well on some intelligence tests.

  B. People doing well on one type of intelligence test do well on other tests.

  C. Intelligent people do not do well on group tests.

  D. Intelligent people do better on written tests than on oral tests.

  33. Gardner believes that ______.

  A. children have different intelligences.

  B. all children are alike.

  C. children should take one intelligence test.

  D. there is no general intelligence.

  34. According to Gardner, schools should ______.

  A. test students’ IQs.

  B. train students who do poorly on tests.

  C. focus on finding the most intelligent students.

  D. promote development of all intelligences.

  35. Gardner thinks that his theory has a ______.

  A. musical foundation.

  B. biological foundation.

  C. intrapersonal foundation.

  D. linguistic foundation.

  答案:ABADB

  第三篇 Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You Sleep(出自卫生教材阅读判断第4篇)

  The United States Food and Drug Administration has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

  Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

  Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island3,crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that could cause sleepiness.

  The Food and Drug Administration did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it had documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

  A FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare. But, he also says there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He says the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.

  41. The FDA announced that

  A. thirteen drug companies were closed last Wednesday

  B. only thirteen drugs could treat sleeping disorders

  C. some sleep drugs could lead to serious side effects.

  D. some makers of sleeping pills provided false information to their patients

  42. The FDA warned that some sleeping pills

  A. can help people to learn to cook

  B. prevent people from driving while asleep

  C. present life-threatening risk to patients

  D. have severe effect on a patient’s long-term memory

  43. What happened to Patrick Kennedy last year?

  A. He crashed his car into a security barrier.

  B. He was killed during a car accident

  C. His car broke down on the way home

  D. He was treated for stomachache

  44. After taking the drug Ambien, some people

  A. are unable to drive

  B. don’t know how to cook

  C. suffer from eating problems

  D. fall asleep while walking

  45. The risk of strange behaviors resulting from taking sleeping pills could be reduced if

  A. the FDA takes more strict regulations

  B. drug companies listen to patients’ advice

  C. the New York Times releases more reports

  D. people don’t drink alcohol while taking these pills

  答案:CDADD

  第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

  Do You Have a Sense of Humor? (同理工C、综合C补全短文)

  Humor and laughter are good for us. There is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. In fact, every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive, healing way. So how can we get more laughter into our lives? __B__ (46) Psychologist and author, Steve Wilson, has some answers.

  Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor. They think, “either you’ve got it, or you don’t.” Dr. Wilson points out that this is false. __D__ (47)

  The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at birth. ___C__ (48) (After all, when a baby laughs, we don’t rush over and say, “That kid has a great sense of humor!”) A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime.

  Sometimes people think that they don’t have a good sense of humor because they are not good joke tellers. Dr. Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor. __A__ (49) Then we will make others laugh, too.

  A person who has a true sense of humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life. One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is “the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation.” Consider this sign from a store window. “Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality.” The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store’s excellent service __F__ (50) As Dr. Wilson says, “a good sense of humor means that you don’t have to be funny, you just have to see what’s funny.”

  A. He advises us to lose our inhibitions (抑制) and try to laugh at ourselves.

  B. Is it possible to develop a sense of humor?

  C. However, that does not mean that infants have a sense of humor.

  D. What is true, however, is that we are born with the capacity to laugh and smile.

  E. Everyone experiences this emotion.

  F. He had a serious purpose, but if you have a sense of humor, you will probably find the sign funny!

  答案:BDCAF


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