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2015年职称英语考试卫生类A级阅读理解及答案

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  阅读理解

  Bringing nanotechnology to health care for the poor

  nanotechnology uses matter at the level of molecules and atoms. researchers are finding different uses for particles with a length of one nanometer, or one-billionth of a meter, these include things like beauty products1 and dirt-resistant clothing. but one area where many experts believe nanotechnology holds great promise is medicine.

  last week, speakers at a program in washington discussed using nanotechnology to improve health care in developing countries. the program took place at the woodrow wilson international center for scholars. peter singer at the university of toronto says a nanotechnology called quantum dots2 could be used to confirm cases of malaria. he says it could offer a better way than the traditional process of looking at a person’s blood under a microscope.

  in poor countries, this process is often not followed. as a result, sick people may get treated for malaria even if they do not have it. such misuse of medicines can lead to drug resistance. quantum dots are particles that give off3 light when activated. researchers are studying ways to program them to identify diseases by lighting up in the presence of a targeted molecule. 4

  experts say nanotechnology shows promise not just for diagnosing diseases, but also for treating them. piotr grodzinski of the national institutes of health5 talked about how nanotechnology could make drugs more effective. he talked about cancer drugs already developed with nanotechnology. he says if a drug can target a cancer locally in the body, then much less of it might be needed, and that means lower side effects.6

  andrew maynard is chief scientist for the project on emerging nanotechnologies at the woodrow wilson center. he noted that brazil, india, china and south africa are currently doing nanotechnology research that could help poor countries. but he also noted that there is some risk in using nano-materials. he says nanometer-sized particles behave differently in the body and the environment compared to larger particles7. experts say more investment in research is needed to better understand these risks.

  词汇:

  nanotechnology/5naneutek7nledzi/n 纳米技术 matter/5mate/n.物质

  molecule/5mclikju:l, 5meu-/n.分子atom/5atem/n.原子

  nanometer/5neine7mi:te/n.纳米,毫微米 (长度单位,=10-9m)one-billionth n.十亿分之一dirt-resistant adj,防尘的,防污的promise/5prcmis/n.希望,前途program(=programme)n.节目,节目单vt.为……编制程序scholar/5skcle/n.学者quantum/5kwcntem/n.量;量子.

  dot/dct/n.(小)点,圆点confirm/ken5fe:m/vt.确认;证实case/keis/n.病症;病例; malaria/me5lzerie/n.疟(疾) misuse/5mis5ju:z/n.误用,滥用 particle/5pb:tikl/n.颗粒.微粒:粒子activate/5aktiveit/vt.使激活 identify/ai5dentifai/v.辨认diagnose/5daie^neuz/vt.诊断(疾病)

  brazil/bre5zil/n.巴西nano-material n.纳米材料investment/ in5vestment / n.投资;投资额

  练习:

  1. which of the following uses of nanotechnology is not mentioned in the passage?

  a to make beauty products and dirt-resistant clothing.

  b to produce better and lighter building materials.

  c to help more accurately diagnose diseases.

  d to help more effectively treat diseases.

  2. how can quantum dots be used to confirm diseases?

  a by traditionally looking at a person’s blood under a microscope.

  b by letting a person take some kind of medicine.

  c by lighting up in the presence of a targeted molecule.

  d by subjecting a person to an x-ray examination.

  3. how can nanotechnology be used to make a drug more effective?

  a by making a drug target the focus of a disease.

  b by changing the structure of the body cells.

  c by lowering the side effects caused by a drug.

  d by letting a patient take a dose as large as possible.

  4. the following developing countries are doing very well scientific research on nanotechnology except______.

  a china b brazil c iran d india

  5. which of the following is the possible risk in using nano-materials mentioned in the passage?

  a they may cause some damage to the body cells.

  b they are harmful materials themselves.

  c they may store in the body.

  d they may behave differently in the body and the environment.

  答案与题解:

  1.b 本题选项a在第一段第三句提到,选项c在第二段倒数第二句和第四段第一句提到,选项d则在第四段第二、三、四句提到,只有选项b全文均未提及。

  2.c 第三段最后两句说到,如果存在靶分子的话,量子点就会发光,以此辨认疾病,这正是本题答案。

  3.a 第四段全段都在讲纳米技术如何提高药物疗效,而中心就在于纳米技术能使药物对准疾病病灶(文章中实际是举已经研发的治癌药为例)从而提高药物疗效。

  4.c 第五段第二句已经说得很清楚,其中并没有iran。

  5.d 第五段第三、四句说到,纳米材料的颗粒在体内和在体外环境中作用可能不太一样,因此可能存在某种危险性。其实言外之意还存在未知数,所以后一句才说需要更多投入以便搞清它们的危险性。


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