2017-12-26 08:37:38  每日学英语


1. ANEMONE (/?'nem?n?/)



The anemone is also known as the windflower. Indeed, the word anemone, first attested in English in the mid-1500s, probably comes from a Greek word literally meaning “daughter of the wind.” It’s said that the brightly colored petals of this flower only opened when the wind blew. Sea anemones took their names in the late 1700s on their likeness to the flowers.

银莲花也被称为风之花。事实上,anemone是在16世纪中叶首次出现在英语中的,它可能起源于一个希腊单词,意思是“风的女儿”。据说,明媚鲜艳的银莲花只有在风吹过时才会绽放。因为银莲花和??屑阜窒嗨?,到18世纪末期时,人们将???一种长在水中的食肉动物)称为sea anemone。

2. AMARYLLIS (/,æm?'r?l?s/)



In the pastoral poems of Theocritus, Ovid, and Virgil, Amaryllis was a common name for a beautiful country girl. Carl Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy, adopted Amaryllis for this flower family in the late 1700s. The name Amaryllis may derive from a Greek verb meaning to “sparkle” or “shine”, fitting for the rich red veins that pop out from the long white petals of these flowers.


3. CARNATION (/kα: 'ne??(?)n/)



There are two etymologies for carnation, a term found in English in the early 1500s. According to one, carnation may be a corruption of coronation, perhaps because the flower’s toothed petals resembled crowns or because the flowers were worn, crown-like, as garlands. The second etymology comes from the flower’s original color, and roots carnation in the Middle French carnation, “pink complexion”, from the Latin root caro, “flesh”, source of less delicate words like carnal and carnage.


4. CHRYSANTHEMUM (/kr?'sænθ?m?m/)



True to their etymology, chrysanthemums often bloom in striking gold. The word chrysanthemum, emerging in English in the late 1500s, comes from the Greek krysanthemon, meaning “gold flower”. The first component, krysos (“gold”), shows up in the biological term chrysalis. The second, anthos (“flower”), appears, among other words, in anthology, literally “a collection of flowers,” first used for a compilation of small poems in the early 1600s.

与其词源一致,Chrysanthemum通??鲂涯康慕鸹粕ǘ?。Chrysanthemum在16世纪末期传入英语,这个单词源于希腊语krysanthemon,意为金色的花朵。第一个组成部分krysos意为“金色的”,是形容蝶蛹的生物学术语。Anthos表示“花朵”,它也是anthology的词根。Anthology意为 “鲜花大全”,最早在17世纪初期时被用来表示短诗集。

5. DAISY (/'de?z?/)



The word daisy has deep roots in the English language. As attested to in some of English’s earliest records, daisy comes from the Old English phrase dgesege: the “day’s eye,” as the flower’s white petals close at dusk and open at dawn, like the eye of the day as it sleeps and wakes.





The name forget-me-not was a direct translation from the Old French ne m’oubliez mye (“do not forget me”). Renaissance romantics believed that, if they wore these soft-colored flowers, they would never be forgotten by their lovers, making the flower a symbol of fidelity and everlasting love. Other languages also translated ne m’oubliez mye: For this flower, German has Vergissmeinnicht, Swedish has forgatmigej, and Czech has nezabudka.


7. LUPINES (/'lju:pin/)



The tall, tapering blue clusters of lupines certainly don’t look like their etymology: lupinus, a Latin adjective for “wolf”. So why the fierce name? Perhaps the flowers were once thought to deplete the ground in which they grow, devouring its nutrients like a wolf. This is likely folk etymology, though, as lupines actually enrich the soil and have long been harvested for their nutritious seeds.


8. ORCHID (/'?:k?d/)



Orchids are a diverse family of extremely elegant flowers, but the literal meaning of their name, documented in English in the early 1840s, is a bit earthier, shall we say. Orchid comes from the Greek orkhis, meaning “testicle”. The flower’s bulbous roots, often paired, have long been thought to resemble those male organs.


9. PEONY (/'pi: ?n?/)



The peony, a word found in Old English, was believed to have healing properties in early medicine, which is why its name might honor Paion, the physician of the gods in Greek mythology.


10. RHODODENDRON (/,r??d?'dendr(?)n/)



Like many other flower names, rhododendron enters the English record in the mid-1500s. The name literally means “rose tree” in Greek (rhodon means and is related to the word “rose”). It’s an apt name, for this shrub or small tree blooms with brilliant, rose-colored flowers.

和其他众多鲜花名一样,rhododendron(杜鹃)是16世纪中叶传入英语中的。Rhododendron在希腊语中的意思是“玫瑰树”( rhodon意思和玫瑰相关)。这个名字非常贴切,因为这种像小树一样的灌木植物能开出鲜艳的玫瑰色花朵。

11. TULIP (/'tju: l?p/)



Passing into English via Dutch or German in the late 1500s, tulip actually comes from the Turkish tülbent, based on the Persian dulband: “turban”. The flower, to its ancient namers, resembled the male headwear worn throughout the Middle East, India, and parts of Africa. The word turban also comes from this Persian dulband.


12. VIOLET (/'va??l?t/)



Before we had the color violet, recorded by the late 1300s, we had the flower violet, emerging some decades earlier in the same century. Violet grows out of the French violete or violette, a diminutive of viole, in turn the Latin viola, its name for this distinctively purple flower. This viola has no etymological relationship to the instrument. Some scholars suspect Latin got viola from the Greek name for the plant, ion.

紫色(violet)这个单词在14世纪末期才有记载,而在此之前几十年,violet就指代紫罗兰鲜花。Violet来自于法语中的 violete或violette,它们是viole的指小词,而viole来自于拉丁语单词 viola,也就是拉丁语中对这种独特的紫色花朵的称呼。拉丁文viola和提琴这种乐器毫无关系。一些学者认为,viola来自于希腊语中对紫罗兰这种植物的称呼 ion。



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